FIGHTING INFLAMMATION WITH FOOD
Early this week, The University of Washington Medical Center Registered Dietitian, Charlotte Furman, offered a seminar discussing the current research on inflammation – including associated diseases, the role of the gut microbiome, and the influence of our food choices. awareness surrounding the importance of food and diet in disease prevention and overall wellness. In case you weren’t able to attend the seminar, I’ve put together a brief recap, so you can see why you should combat the negative effects of inflammation – and how.
What is Inflammation?
Inflammation is our body’s normal immune response to injury or harm, like the redness and swelling you might see when you get a cut on your finger. This type of acute (short-term) inflammation serves as a protective mechanism by releasing several pro-inflammatory cytokines.
However, chronic (long-term) inflammation can actually cause tissue damage and contribute to certain diseases, including:
- heart disease
Getting a Good Gut Microbiome
Certain foods and food patterns can be pro- or anti-inflammatory. A pro-inflammatory diet consists of:
- refined carbohydrates (white bread)
- refined vegetable oils (corn, soy, sunflower, and safflower—found in fried foods)
- sugar-sweetened beverages (soda)
- red and processed meats
- trans fats (partially hydrogenated oils)
This type of diet includes many components of a typical American diet and can lead to a less diverse gut microbiome, meaning less friendly bacteria. Including pre- and probiotics in your diet can improve the gut’s immune function and inhibit inflammatory processes that can damage your gut cells. Research has shown that diet modifications can result in changes in gut microbiota in a matter of four weeks.
Prebiotics are indigestible plant fibers that provide nourishment to beneficial bacteria and can be found in onions, garlic, fruits (bananas), vegetables (asparagus, artichoke), and whole grains.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that benefit the host and can be found in fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, kimchi, miso, tempeh, sauerkraut, and kombucha.
The Omega Problem
Another important component of an anti-inflammatory diet is keeping an omega-6 to omega-3 intake ratio of about 4:1. The current ratio of the average American diet is estimated to be at 20:1, much higher than ideal. Omega-6 fatty acids metabolize into pro-inflammatory compounds, whereas omega-3 fatty acids metabolize into more favorable compounds.
Omega-6 fatty acids (arachidonic acid) can be found in corn-fed animal products, and oils such as corn, sunflower, soy, and cottonseed.
Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) can be found in fish, walnuts, dark leafy greens, grass-fed animal products, and oils such as flax, canola, and camelina.
Various studies have provided evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean diet pattern. (You can check some of them out here and here) This diet emphasizes whole grains, fruits, and vegetables (with good amounts of olive oil and seafood), some dairy and poultry, and limited meats and sweets.
Spices have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory components and are a great way to flavor your foods. Tumeric, onions, garlic, ginger, and cinnamon all have been associated with lowering levels of inflammation, as have lignans (flax seed, whole grains, berries), olive oil, fiber, nuts, and magnesium.
Using your Newfound Knowledge
In summary, Charlotte says that it all comes down to this:
- Eat a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in omega-6 fatty acids. Include cold water fish like salmon, mackerel, sardines, and herring)
- Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
- Limit simple carbohydrates
- Eat small meals
- Include leafy green vegetables, nuts, flax
- Avoid trans-fats
- Use spices when cooking
- The University of Washington, Health Department.